2014-01-31 17.02

Research
*  My goal this month is to document what I actually know about my Denman immigrant ancestor in preparation for my trip in the Fall.  Try to figure out where the information about William’s parents came from and what documentation actually shows it.

*  I spent some time in May putting together a new family tree for a young couple in my family that is getting married in June.  I like the idea of showing the joining of the two families.  I also discovered that I really enjoyed the interactions with the parents of the two young people and liked getting to know about their families in ways I hadn’t before.  Neither family is directly related to me, but one of them has been “part of the family” for so long that it feels like there is a direct relationship. 

Organization

*  Digital organization – barely started the process with the Denman line in May, so this is my on-going goal.  The Denman line is not actually the next family alphabetically (which is what I would usually do) but I am going to England in the Fall with specific questions to answer about the Denmans.  In addition, I correspond with several Denman researchers and continue to find new information, so this *really* needs to be brought up to date (so I don’t re-invent too many wheels).  This organization work will also, very likely, suggest research paths to take on this family.

*  Scan the land records for the Salts, enter into spreadsheet of things scanned.

Education

*  Watch at least one webinar.

*  I spent a fair amount of time looking at videos and websites to learn a bit about how to use the Charting Companion software which I just bought to use to make charts that my RootsMagic won’t make.  Strictly speaking this isn’t genealogy education but technological education but I think it counts.

It has been a long time since I looked at or wrote anything about my Salt emigrant ancestor, so I thought it was about time to put it out there again.  In the hopes that somebody who reads this might have new information to provide, I am listing my brick wall ancestor Edward Salt and what I think I know, or want to know, about him.

What I Think I Know about Edward Salt(s):

Grant to Edward Salts, Berkeley County, Virginia, 1781

* in 1781 he was granted land in Berkeley county, Virginia by Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and was named as being “of Berkeley County”.

* in 1790 for the first federal census there was an Edward Salts enumerated in western Pennsylvania (Georges Township, Fayette, Pennsylvania).  I have always assumed (and yes, I should know better!) that this is my ancestor.  Even though the list of individuals in the household is missing one of the females who should have been there, I did not question that this was my guy.  And of course, this first census only counted males by two age groups and all females in one group.   Now, there may be explanations for a missing female in the count, but it is also possible as I have been told since I first wrote my original posting about him, that this is the Other Edward Salts who later moved to southern Ohio but a couple of counties away from my family’s location.

* he was given a certificate acknowledging his having provided goods/services in the American Revolution in Virginia.

*1793-95 – Edward Salt was on tax lists in Bourbon county, Kentucky

* Innocent Salt, one of the daughters, listed her father Edward when she married William Frazier in Bourbon county, Kentucky in 1794. [Was she a minor at that point, and so needed permission to marry?]

* in 1797 daughter Nellie married John Wharton in Mason county, Kentucky

* in 1798 Edward Salt had 4 land transactions listed in Bracken county, Kentucky

* he was listed (as Edward Salts) on a tax list for Bracken county, Kentucky, dated 22 Nov 1799. [Does this mean he owned land in Bracken county on that date?]

* in the July 1813 term of the Clermont county Common Pleas Court Edward Salts was granted a license to keep a ferry for one year

* in 1813 his estate was administered in Clermont county, Ohio. [He died intestate and John and Edward Salt were listed as administrators.  He owned land in Nicholas county, Kentucky which passed to his 5 children.]

* John and Edward Salt were listed on the estate papers of Edward Salt.

What I Still Want To Know:

* who were Edward Salt’s parents and siblings?

* when and where was he born?

* who did he marry, and when and where?  [Was his wife really Irish and that was a problem because he was English?]

* when (and from where) did he migrate to the Colonies (and was he first in Virginia or someplace else)?

* was he related to the Thomas Salts who was in the same part of Virginia about the same time? [Edward’s name has been listed in various places as Edward Salts as has one of his sons, John. One of our cousins called the family Salts. Another cousin’s line took to spelling the name Sault. It seems that most of the family lines have settled on Salt since at least the time of my great grandfather.]

* who were his children and when were they born? [I have a list of 5 children – 2 sons and 3 daughters – with approximated birthdates, and each of them at some point listed Virginia as place of birth on a census. These names were in a manuscript compiled by relatives, probably first in the early 1900s. I am not sure where these names came from originally but they are listed in a number of places now as the children of Edward and Mary Salt(s).]

Family Myths:

* he was born in Birmingham, Yorkshire, England [which cannot be, because Birmingham is in the West Midlands] or in Berkshire, England

* he married an Irish woman and that unappreciated marriage led to his needing to migrate to the Colonies (he was disowned)

* he served in the American Revolution and was awarded land in the Virginia Military District in Ohio as a result [he did, apparently, provide goods/services, and son John bought the rights to land from a soldier]

* he migrated from Suffolk County, Virginia to Crab Orchard or Paris, Kentucky in 1790

* he built the first cabin in Franklin Township [Clermont County, Ohio] about 1796

I think this is Mary Boothby in about 1917

I think this is Mary Boothby

The evidence is amassing that Elizabeth M. Hockman/Earhart was not born to John Earhart and Margaret Shotwell.  Here is what I have found so far.

1.  Elizabeth Hockman, age 4, was enumerated with the John Arehart household in the 1860 census (taken 6/28/1860, which according to her daughter on the death cert would have been 11 days after her 5th birthday but if the census taker was sticking to 1 June as the date of record then 4 is accurate).  Also in the household were Margaret Arehart, Tillford Arehart, William Arehart (later AKA Samuel), and Ruth Shotwell, Domestic.

2.  Elizabeth M. Earhart was also enumerated with the John Earhart household on the 1870 census (15 years old, listed as helps mother) along with William S. Earhart (age 18, works out, Farm), and John C. (age 6, attends school).  It seems likely that Elizabeth/Mary lived with the Earharts until she married at 18 in 1873.  This was a very rural area, and the Earharts lived on a farm described as a mile or so off the main road, so I haven’t figured out what other records might show her presence at the Earharts between the two census points.  It seems unlikely that there is a city directory that would include the household.

3.  Tilford Earhart lived at home in 1860 and up to the time he enlisted in the Army in the Civil War in August 1862.  He died at home in 1866.  In 1888, Margaret made an application for a mother’s pension based on the death of her son due to his military service.  In 1892 there was a special hearing on this application and statements were again taken.

4. In her application for the pension, Margaret Shotwell Earhart did not ever mention a daughter.  She said in her sworn statements that she had borne two sons, one of them Tilford E. Earhart who had served in the Civil War and the other John Charles who was born during that War.  She clearly described the family as consisting of her husband, herself and the 2 sons.

5. John Earhart’s statement in the pension application  process also did not mention Elizabeth (or any daughter) but did also mention his sons.

6. The affidavits of 2 other individuals mentioned a nephew (and one named him as Samuel) who lived with John and Margaret and helped on the farm.  Margaret herself described her nephew Samuel as having stayed on and helped them around the farm until he was a young man although he had no legal obligation to do so.

7. At least one of the affidavits mentioned that Margaret had required “girl help” over the years (perhaps due to ill-health) but at times not had it (couldn’t afford it).  I’m guessing that “girl help” meant help with the work on the farm usually done by Margaret or any woman.

8.  In no description in the pension application of either Tilford’s death or the circumstances the family was in at that time was Elizabeth mentioned.  She would have been 9-10 years old at the time of his death in 1866.

In the early 1850s Ohio law directed that township trustees were responsible for the care of impoverished and destitute children and orphans.  Such children were placed in either institutions for the poor or with individual families to whom they were indentured.  Based on abstracts of the indentures of Green Creek Township, Sandusky County (found on the R.B. Hayes site) , children as young as 4 weeks old were legally indentured often to the age of 18.  Thus it is possible that Elizabeth might have been placed with the Earharts if she were orphaned or her parents were unable financially to take care of her.

9.  In registering the birth of their son M. K. Boothby in 1879, the parents were listed as Alexander Boothby and E.M. Hockman.  Their other children that I have found registrations for are all listed with her name as Earhart, although I have not found all of the children and the ones found were the later-born ones.  She was also married giving her name as Earhart.

10.  Confusingly there is a Hockman family in the same close area with a daughter named Elizabeth who was born about the same time as my ancestor.  Luckily, the 1870 federal census sheet shows both the John Earhart and the Delitha Hockman households within a few families of each other.  Thus I am pretty sure that there were in fact 2 different Elizabeth Hockmans.

11.  The only Hockman household to show up on the 1850 censuses in either Brown County or neighboring Clermont County Ohio besides the David Hockman family later the Delitha Hockman family, was a William  (age 21) and Cynthia A. Hockman (age 18).  I have not yet found them in the 1860 census nor subsequent ones.

12.  I have not found any record of the birth of a female  born to a Hockman  in Ohio in 1855, although there was not state-wide mandated reporting of births until the early 1900s.  Brown County did not register births until 1867, and although Clermont County registered some births from 1856 on, there is no Hockman birth found by search on familysearch.org.  No luck finding a Boothby family Bible which might have included Mary’s birth information.

I conclude at this point that Mary Elizabeth (or Elizabeth Mary) was born to a Hockman, taken in at an early age by John and Margaret Earhart and that she took their name whether there was any formal or legal relationship with them.  Still to be searched: court records, will/probate records, school records if they exist, church records if they exist.  My quest is not over, but some progress has been made.

 

 

 

       root of bitterness

     Root of Bitterness (1) is a fascinating compilation of primary source material about the lives of American women.  Most of these short accounts are written or spoken by the women themselves.  Together they span the time period from the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the turn of the twentieth century.

      Nancy Cott and her coeditors have divided the book into eight sections in roughly chronological order. In each section we hear a diverse group of women speak about their lives.  A short paragraph at the beginning of each selection tells us something about the woman whose voice we are about to hear. 

      This is a fascinating book for any family historian.  Each of you will find a piece that adds to your knowledge of a woman in your personal history.  In addition you will learn about the lives of women of different races, social class or ethnicity, enabling you to place your ancestor within the greater context of American women of the time.

    Two areas were particularly interesting to me, the testimonies of women speaking about gender roles and their place in life and the first hand accounts of African-American and Native-American women.

     There are many examples of women voicing opinions about a woman’s place in society, sometimes to relatives or friends and sometimes to a wider audience.

      Here are a few samples.

      In 1800 17 year old Eliza Southgate, a privileged young woman being educated in a fine private school suitable for women of he class, wrote to her seventeen year old cousin, Moses Porter.

      “Do you suppose the mind of woman the only work of God that was ‘made in vain’. The cultivation of the powers we possess, I have ever thought a privilege (or I may say a duty) that belonged to the human species, and not man’s exclusive prerogative.” (2)

       And when her cousin objected to the subject of her letter, this:

     “You undoubtedly think I am acting out of my sphere in my intention to discuss this subject, and my presumption probably gave rise to that idea, which you expressed in your last, that however unqualified a woman might be she is always equipt for the discussion of any subject and overwhelmed her hearers with her ‘clack’.  On what subjects shall I write you?  I shall either fatigue and disgust you with female trifles or shock you by stepping beyond the limits you have prescribed.” (3)

      Sarah Grimke was a well-known women’s rights activists and, in my opinion, a visionary.  In 1837 she wrote,

        “In those employments that are peculiar to women, their time is estimated at only half the value of that of men. A woman who goes out to wash works as hard in proportion as a wood sawyer or a coal heaver, but she is not generally able to make more than half a day by a day’s work.”  (4)

     Over 150 years later this from the national Committee on Pay Equity,

 “In May of 1998, 115 clerical workers in the Sachem School District in New York — also known as the Sachem Suffragettes — celebrate their new contract, which includes the first steps to achieving pay equity with custodial workers.” (5)

 In 2014 a woman earns $0.77 cents for every $1.00 a man earns. In January 2013 Eleanor Holmes Norton introduced HR 438, the Fair Pay Act of 2013.  It seeks to end wage discrimination against those who work in female-dominated or minority-dominated jobs by establishing equal pay for equivalent work. For example, within individual companies, employers could not pay jobs that are held predominately by women less than jobs held predominately by men if those jobs are equivalent in value to the employer.

 The bill was referred to the Workforce Protections Subcommittee of the Education and the Workforce Committee.  It hasn’t been heard of since.  It is considered to have a 4% chance of making it out of the committee and a 1% chance of being passed by the House of Representatives.

   First person records are African-American and Native American women are very scarce.  The editors have collected a series of powerful memoirs from these women. These stories remind us that every piece of land in this country is soaked in someone’s blood.

 This from a 1926 interview with Iron Teeth, a Cheyenne woman who survived the forced removal of Cheyenne from the northern pains in 1878.

 “I was afraid of all white men soldiers.  It seemed to me they represented the most extreme cruelty.  They had just killed my husband and burned our whole village.  There was in my mind a clear recollection of a time, 12 years before this, when they had killed and scalped many of our women and children in a peaceable camp near Mexico.  At that time, I had seen a friend of mine, a woman, crawling along on the ground, shot, scalped, crazy, but not yet dead.  After that I always thought of her when I saw white men soldiers.” (6)

   And this from a set of stories collected by Benjamin Drew in 1855 from refugees in Canada.  Mrs. John Little speaks here,

 “There was one weakly woman named Susan, who could not stand the work, and she was sold to Mississippi, away from her husband and son.  That’s one way of taking care of the sick and the weak.  That’s the way the planters do with a weakly, sickly ‘nigger.’—they say, ‘he’s a dead expense to ‘em and put him off as soon as they can.  After Susan was carried off, her husband went to see her: when he came back he received two hundred blows with the paddle.” (7)

  could go on quoting these pieces forever and I have already gone on too long.  Borrow this book from your library, or if you can, buy a copy, put it on your nightstand and read a piece or two each night. It will be money well spent.

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

1. Cott, Nancy F., etal.,  Root of Bitterness: Documents of the Social History of American Women. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996

2 Ibid., p.101

3. Ibid.,p.102

4. Ibid., p.125

5. http://www.pay-equity.org/info-history.html

6. Cott, p. 226

7. Cott, p. 256

I’m supposed to say that I have no financial interest in this book.  This is true.  I bought my copy used for about $10.00.  I do think you should buy a copy too.  I saw used copies listed on the site of a major online operation for $3.42 plus shipping.

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

I’ve had a hard time getting around to posting Part II of William and Rosa’s story.  It turns out that putting myself in their place and trying to tell their story without veering in to fiction is harder than I thought it would be.  Nonetheless here is Part II. This is the story of William and Rosa Martin’s years together.  You can read Part I here.

      Following financial reversals in Michigan William Martin moved his family to Dayton, Oregon. I have no idea why he chose Dayton, but he did, and moved the family to a small house there.  Soon William bought a 15 acre plot of land east of Dayton on the Yamhill River.

Rosa Blood martin in the early years of her marriage

Rosa Blood martin in the early years of her marriage

    What did Rosa think about living in this isolated place?  All we have to go on is Amy’s memoir.

      She describes the land as “back of another farm, but my father had purchased a right of way out by way of a gulley.  The struggle to make a living in those days of not much market was hard and we never had money for building that road out so followed a path along the riverbank along the edge of the other farm to get out.  Some of the families on that farm were nice about it, but one was downright mean.    

      We always had something to eat but no dietician of this state would have approved of it at times.  If our cow went dry we had to go without butter.  We raised some meat and salted it away.  There was very little money and we had no fruit jars, or not enough to can many vegetables or fruits, so my mother dried as many berries and other kinds of fruit as possible.  Often we had no sugar and tried to eat the stewed fruit without it.

      Clothes were a problem.  My brother and I went barefoot every summer and sometimes had to go to school that way.  It hurt our pride more than our health.””

      Rosa was sufficiently discouraged with life on the farm that she moved to Portland hoping to earn money by taking in borders.  When this didn’t work she moved back to the property near Dayton. All of Rosa’s daughters received teaching certificates and began teaching by the age of twenty.  This helped the family finances, but they still lost the 15 acre homestead.

      By 1900  Rosa was living with her children in Dayton, William was not with them and was presumably somewhere in Oregon.  In 1900 Rosa came into some money left to her by her father, Francis Blood. The story of what became of this money is a bit odd.  Again, I quote Amy,  “Then it was that Grandfather Blood passed away and Mother came into some money.  In the meantime, J. and Rosa had kept up the interest on the loan we had from a woman teacher who was money mad.  So, having heard that some money was coming to mother, she appeared with a shyster lawyer even before we had not yet received anything from my grandfather’s estate.  She signed a document and my sister Rosa witnessed it.  This was sent back to Michigan and the lawyer there discovered it had been tampered with so wrote to mother about it.  This rascal had raised the amount, but Michigan being so far away it was going to cost us more to fight it than to pay it. The “teacher” would do nothing about it ether.”

     So Rosa and her children continued to support themselves by teaching and struggled along with very little money.

    William Martin died in Yamhill County, Oregon in 1904.  He had $50 and owned 160  acres of land in an isolated spot. I don’t know how he came into possession of that land.  I do have his probate papers.  William died intestate.  His daughter, Jessie, claimed $500 for “money advanced for incidental expenses and support of family.”  Jessie then purchased the acreage for $550.  I assume that no money changed hands and that she received the land to settle the debt she claimed. 

      By 1905 Rosa and her children had moved to Salem Oregon where Rosa and her daughters taught.

      By the time the 1910census was taken  Rosa was retired and was living with and supported by her daughters, Amy and Jessie.  Her daughter Rosa and her son Francis had married and were starting their own families.

The house on Lee Street

The house on Lee Street

Rosa died in 1920.  Her two daughters continued to live in the house on Lee Street until they were no longer able to care for themselves.

      Perhaps if there had been more opportunities for women to work and support themselves Rosa and William’s story would have been different.  We say that money can’t buy happiness and that may be true, but lack of money certainly brought this family buckets of sadness.  Not all stories have happy endings.

 

 

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